Richmond is one of the many towns which were settled by Mormon pioneers at the base of the mountains on the east side of Cache Valley. Agrippa Cooper was the first settler, coming in the mid-1850's. In 1859, John Bair led a group of sixteen families arrived, and the next year a fort was built where a city park is located now. The pioneers engaged in agricultural pursuits and Richmond became known for its holstein cows. A "Black and White Days" celebration is held annually still, named for the color of the cows.
The Bear River Mountains make a sharp climb immediately east of Richmond and Naomi Peak, a few miles in, is 9,979 feet tall. The mountains are snow-capped in spring and covered with beautiful forests. The valley is full of farmland, grassland and some swamps. The Bear River flows past a few miles to the west.
U.S. Highway 91 passes through Richmond on Second West Street, heading north to Franklin and south to Smithfield. Franklin is in Idaho, the border being just a few miles away. Main Street runs east-west and its intersection with State Street marks the historic center of town. Utah Highway 142 begins at Richmond and heads west across Cache Valley connecting to Trenton and Clarkston.
The population of Richmond was 2,470 at the 2010 census. The elevation is about 4,520 feet on the west side of town, and 4,800 on the east side. Farmand reaches high on the mountainside above Richmond and houses are scattered into that area.